Kenneth B. Clark (July 14, 1914 – May 1, 2005) - was African-American psychologist. K.B.Clark and his wife founded the Northside Center for Child Development in Harlem and the organization Harlem Youth Opportunities Unlimited (HARYOU). - They were known for their 1940s experiments using dolls to study children's attitudes about race.
- Doll experimentsThe Clarks' doll experiments grew out of Mamie Clark's master's degree thesis. They published three major papers between 1939 and 1940 on children's self perception related to race. Their studies found contrasts among children attending segregated schools in Washington, DC versus those in integrated schools in New York. They found that black children often preferred to play with white dolls over black; that, asked to fill in a human figure with the color of their own skin, they frequently chose a lighter shade than was accurate; and that the children gave the color "white" attributes such as good and pretty, but "black" was qualified as bad and ugly - In 2006 filmmaker Kiri Davis recreated the doll study and documented it in a film entitled A Girl Like Me. Despite the many changes in some parts of society, Davis found the same results as did the Drs. Clark in their study of the late 1930s and early 1940s. → Girl Like Me
Brother Malcolm, The Black Shining Prince, Malik El-Shabazz… many names but one person. There’s no doubt he’s one of the most important Afro-American, his autobiography is one of the ten most influential nonfiction books of the of 20th century. Malcolm’s words are very often misunderstood or misinterpreted and hatemongers try to depict him as a racist or extremist.
Hailed as "a masterpiece" (San Francisco Chronicle), the late Manning
Marable's acclaimed biography of Malcolm X finally does justice to one of the
most influential and controversial figures of twentieth-century American
history. Filled with startling new information and shocking revelations,
Malcolm X unfolds a sweeping story of race and class in America. Reaching
into Malcolm's troubled youth, it traces a path from his parents' activism as
followers of Marcus Garvey through his own work with the Nation of Islam and
rise in the world of black nationalism, and culminates in the never-before-told
true story of his assassination. Malcolm X is a stunning achievement, the
definitive work on one of our greatest advocates for social change.
From hustling, drug addiction and armed violence in America's black ghettos Malcolm X turned, in a dramatic prison conversion, to the puritanical fervour of the Black Muslims. As their spokesman he became identified in the white press as a terrifying teacher of race hatred; but to his direct audience, the oppressed American blacks, he brought hope and self-respect. This autobiography (written with Alex Haley) reveals his quick-witted integrity, usually obscured by batteries of frenzied headlines, and the fierce idealism which led him to reject both liberal hypocrisies and black racialism.
For seven years Benjamin Karim asisted Malcom daily in his Muslim ministry at New York Mosque Number Seven. On a Sunday morning, outside Harlem´s Christian churches, he might go „fishing“ with Malcolm for converts to the Nation of Islam. Every Tuesday he diligently studied the natural sciences, current events, history, and geography in Malcolm´s class for assistant ministers.
During his lifetime, the name Malcolm X was a lightning rod that electrified the black community. Now, thirty years after his death, we are still coming to grips with the complexity, and power of his message. In this fascinating volume, Malcolm X, the man and the leader, stands revealed in a shimmering mosaic of memories, interviews, insights, and appreciations by:
The director of Do the Right Thing and Jungle Fever describes the
troubles he encountered while making Malcolm X, a film based on the life
of the slain African-American leader. ................................... Title: By Any Means Necessary: Making of Malcolm X Authors: Malcolm X, Ralph Wiley, Spike Lee Publisher: Hyperion Books Year: 1992 Number of pages: 314 ...................................
The mythic figure of Malcolm X conjures up a variety of images--black nationalist, extremist, civil rights leader, hero. But how often is Malcolm X understood as a religious leader, a man profoundly affected by his relationship with Allah?
Malcolm X's cultural rebirth--his improbable second coming--brims with irony. The nineties are marked by intense and often angry debates about racial authenticity and "selling out," and the participants in these debates--from politicians to filmmakers to rap artists--often draw on Malcolm's scorching rebukes to such moves. Meanwhile, Malcolm's "X" is marketed in countless business endeavors and is stylishly branded on baseball hats and T-shirts sported by every age, race, and gender.
This book provides the first comprehensive analysis of the political thought of the great African-American Muslim martyr, MALCOLM X. It is the first to illustrate the influence of his islamic faith and his international experience upon his constantly developing political vision.
I think the best way to describe this great book is a few excerpts.
"... by any means necessary. That's our motto. We want freedom by any means necessary. We want justice by any means necessary. We want equality by any means necessary."
"We won't organize any black man to be a Democrat or a Republican because both of them have sold us out."
"Those who claim to be enemies of the system were on their hands and knees waiting for [Democratic president] Johnson to get elected because he's supposed to be a man of peace; and he has troops invading the Congo [in Africa] right now and invading Saigon [Vietnam]...."
"This political, economic, and social system of America was produced from the enslavement of the black man and that particular system is capable only of reproducing that out of which itself was produced."
"No, you have got no friends in Washington, D.C.... You've got friends in Africa, friends in Asia, friends in Latin America."
The vivid conversations in The Negro Protest were conducted by Kenneth B. Clark, noted Negro pyschologist & author of Prejudice & Your Child, for National Educational Television & were produced by Henry Morgenthau with the staff of WGBH-TV in Cambridge, MA. For this book, Dr Clark has written a brief commentary on the interviews & the men he talked to.
This expanded edition includes four talks and an interview given to young people in Ghana, the United Kingdom, and the United States in the last months of his life. Among the new material in this edition is the entire December 1964 debate presentation by Malcolm X at the Oxford Union in the United Kingdom, in print for the first time anywhere. The collection concludes with two memorial tributes by a young socialist leader to this great revolutionary, whose example and words continue to speak the truth for generation after generation of youth. With a new preface and an expanded photo display of 17 pages.
The full impact of Malcolm X, his personality and his mission come urgently to life in this definitive anthology of his writings, speeches and manifestos along with writings about him by an international group of African and African American scholars and activists.
These are the major speeches made by Malcolm X during the last tumultuous eight months of his life. In this short period of time, his vision for abolishing racial inequality in the United States underwent a vast transformation. Breaking from the Black Muslims, he moved away from the black militarism prevalent in his earlier years only to be shot down by an assassin's bullet.
Složitá národnostní, společenská a kulturní situace Orientu – jak tradičně nazýváme země Asie a Afriky – se nám často zdá neproniknutelná. Odděleni jazykovou bariérou a malou znalostí hospodářské a politické specifiky jejich vývoje vnímáme i literaturu těchto četných národů jednou jako celek, jindy zas jsme nakloněni vidět v některé velké literatuře jediného reprezentanta veškeré orientální tvorby. Nesnadného a náročného úkolu umožnit českému čtenáři základní orientaci v této rozsáhlé oblasti se ujal Orientální ústav ČSAV.
This absorbing clearly written study views the Nation of Islam as a millenarian movement that underwent a fateful transformation when its prophecies concerning the end failed. The result was the transformation of the Nation, after death of Elijah Muhammad, into two quite different entities.
The first is the American Muslim Mission...led by Wallace D. Muhammad...The second is reconstituted Nation of Islam under the guidance of the controversial Minister Louis Farrakhan...a timely and convincing account that sheds light on an important era in the history of African-American religion.
Elijah Muhammad´s Nation of Islam came to America´s attention in the 1960´s and 1970´s as a radical separatist African American social and political group. But movement was also a religious one. Edward E. Curtis IV offers the first comprehensive examination of the rituals, ethics, theologies, and religious narratives of the Nation of Islam, showing how the movement combined elements of Afro-Eurasian Islamic traditions with African American traditions to create a new form of Islamic faith.
The presence of Islam in America is as long-standing as the arrival of the first captive Muslims from Africa, making Islam one of America's formative religions. But the long-suppressed indigenous Islam didn't resurface in organized form until the 1930s, when it infused the politico-spiritual drive by the Noble Drew 'Ali and the Honorable Elijah Muhammad to address the appalling social conditions of the ghettoized black masses of the North.
The Nation of Islam in America has become increasingly visible during the last few decades with the rise of Minister Louis Farrakan and events like he Million Man March. This book sheds light on this powerful Black Nationalist organization, from the ideological splits in the Nation of Islam during the 70´s through the growth of the Nation in the 80´s and the expanding influence of the organization in the 90´s, highlighting its key figures and events.
„…we want "poems that kill." Assassin poems, Poems that shootguns. Poems that wrestle cops into alley sand take their weapons leaving them dead with tongues pulled out and sent to Ireland. (…) Poem scream poison gas on beasts in green berets Clean out the world for virtue and love, Let there be no love poems written until love can exist freely and cleanly." (…)
Black Art By Amiri Baraka Source: Selected Poetry of Amiri Baraka/LeRoi Jones (1979)
“We do not need more legislation or liberals. What we need is self love and self respect: By Every Means Necessary! Unfortunately it is not easy to love yourself after years of self hatred. We see evidence of self hatred and self destruction in every city. We must make the extra effort needed to identify the true enemies of our piece and peace of mind. A beginning might be recognition of the fact that through we are all trapped and enslaved by economic boundaries and geographical boundaries we are still capable of spiritual freedom, supported by truth.”
Gil Scott-Heron 5/15/72
*The text was used on the inner cover for the album “Free Will”, 1972
Publikace Simony Hlaváčové Islám ve Spojených státech amerických je v českém prostředí ojedinělým dílem mapujícím přítomnost islámu v USA, a to od jejího počátku, který je spojen s transatlantickým obchodem s otroky, až po současnost. Mimořádnost publikace spočívá v unikátním souhrnu informací o „americké ummě“ – světově nejrůznorodější muslimské populaci žijící v rámci jednoho států.
With more than one billion faithful, Islam is the world´s fastest-growing religion. In the United States, where there are perhaps as many as six million Muslims, Islam may be second only to Christianity in number of adherents. AMERICAN JIHAD is the first comprehensive and popular guide to the faith as it is practiced here.
This newly updated history of Islam in the black community traces the involvement of African Americans with Islam to its roots in the Middle East, West Africa, and antebellum America, and then tells the story of the „Prophets of the City“ – the leaders of the new urban-based African American Muslims movements in the twentieth century.
It places the study od Islam in the context of the racial, ethical, and the political relations that influenced the reception of succesive presentations of Islam, including the West African Islam of slaves, The Ahmadiyya Movement from India, The orthodox Sunni practice of later immigrants, and the Nation of Islam.
This morning I saw smiling faces and celebrating, but I didn’t feel it at all.
The Purpose of this post is NOT to glorify or celebrate his name or deeds, all what I’d like to see is wisdom and not a shallow way of thinking. This act won’t stop killing innocents, but I am afraid it might seal our minds more than they were before.
I don’t feel sadness or happiness, what concerns me more is a close minded people who cannot see the world out there.
What did he really do? Who did he work with? Did he really exist? They say bin Laden has been killed, but who was that guy anyway?